What is an exosome?
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles ranging between 30-150 nm that are produced by virtually every cell type as a means of intercellular communication They contain proteins (growth factors), mRNA (blueprint for protein production) and micro RNA (on-off switch for specific protein production), all contained within a membrane similar to their parent cells that protects exosomal proteins and RNA from degradation until they are delivered to the target cell.
Does the parent cell type of the exosome matter?
Yes, the cargo of the exosomes varies significantly according to the specific parent cell type. In this case, these MSC exosomes carry the developmental message of perinatal mesenchymal stem cells, which are progenitor cells of the connective tissue lineage, meaning that they are involved in development of tissues like skin, hair, bones, muscle and cartilage.
How does Xo Glo® compare to amniotic fluid?
Amniotic fluid has a significantly different protein profile than Xo Glo® and lacks key proteins like TGF-β3, which is an important modulator of inflammation and immune function. Also, the exosomes present in amniotic fluid are primarly of maternal epithelial cell origin, which means that their cargo is substantially different than that of an MSC exosome.
How does Xo Glo® compare to stem cell products often referred to as umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly or biologic allograft?
After being frozen for storage, the number of viable cells in these stem cell products, is very low. Also, any viable allogeneic cells only survive for a very short period time, during which they act by releasing exosomes, meaning that the effects of these products are dependent on the growth factors and the low concentration of exosomes present. Xo Glo® has billions of peri-natal MSC exosomes, and these exosomes remain viable after frozen storage, Also unlike Xo Glo, the growth factors in these products are not protected from degradation by a liposomal membrane.
How does this compare to bone-marrow derived exosome products?
Bone-marrow derived exosomes originate primarily from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) rather than mesenchymal stem cells, which are the source of the exosomes in Xo Glo®. These HSCs are progenitor cells of the blood cell lineage, not the connective tissue lineage, and so their exosomal cargo is much different from that of MSC exosomes. The very low numbers of MSCs that are present in adult bone marrow also differ significantly from peri-natal MSCs in their exosome production, because of the specific microevironment in which these cells reside, as well as the age of the cells.
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